Structured Literacy Components

Structured Literacy is an evidence-based method for teaching foundational reading and writing skills. It involves the explicit, sequential, and systematic teaching of phonology, sound-symbol associations, orthography, morphology, syntax, and semantics. 

Phonology: Phonology is a subfield of linguistics that focuses on studying the sound structures in spoken words. There are 44 phonemes in the English language.

Sound-Symbol Association: In English, sounds (phonemes) are represented by specific written symbols called graphemes. These graphemes include individual letters (like ‘a’, ‘s,’ ‘t’) and combinations of letters (such as ‘th’, ‘ng,’ ‘oa,’ ‘ew,’ ‘igh’), and they stand for sounds in written language. This relationship between sounds and symbols is referred to as the alphabetic principle.

Orthography: This refers to the standardized writing and spelling system within a particular language. It encompasses the rules and conventions governing how words are written and how the symbols (letters or characters) represent sounds, morphemes, and words in a given language.

Morphology: A morpheme represents the smallest unit of meaning in language, encompassing base words and affixes. Effective instruction in morphology can significantly enhance decoding ability, vocabulary acquisition, reading comprehension, and language proficiency.

Syntax: This is the arrangement of words in sentences to convey meaning. It involves understanding parts of speech, grammar rules, and word usage in sentences. 

Semantics: This deals with the meaning conveyed through language. It encompasses the understanding of meaning in individual words, phrases, and sentences. Developing comprehension in both spoken and written language involves teaching vocabulary, interpreting phrases and sentences, and grasping text organization.

Structured Literacy Implementation Recommendations

The Science of Reading has shown that a Structured Literacy approach is a proven method to achieve later reading success. Effective implementation of Structured Literacy involves a concerted effort by educators, administrators, and parents to foster a learning environment that embraces the core principles of Structured Literacy. Recommended practices for Structured Literacy include:

Comprehensive Teacher Training

Providing extensive training for educators is foundational. Teachers need a deep understanding of Structured Literacy principles, methods, and instructional strategies to implement these practices in the classroom effectively.

Systematic Instruction

Structured Literacy thrives on systematic instruction, breaking language components into sequential, cumulative steps. Each lesson builds upon previously learned skills, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of language rules and patterns.

Multisensory Techniques

Integrating multisensory techniques engages various senses to reinforce learning. It involves tactile, auditory, visual, and kinesthetic activities,  providing a range of instructional methods that promote the retention of language concepts.

Differentiated Instruction

Acknowledging diverse learner needs is crucial. Structured Literacy implementation should include strategies incorporating different instructional paces and accommodating varying abilities, ensuring all students receive individualized instruction.

Regular Assessment and Feedback

Continuous assessment tracks student progress and identifies areas that need reinforcement. Timely and corrective feedback enables educators and learners to adjust their understandings and improve performance.

Integration of Technology

Leveraging technology supports the delivery of  Structured Literacy lessons. Educational apps, digital tools, and interactive resources can supplement traditional teaching methods, providing engaging and adaptive learning experiences.

Implementing Structured Literacy may encounter challenges such as resource constraints, time limitations, and resistance to change. Overcoming these challenges requires education, commitment, and collaborative efforts to integrate Structured Literacy within various educational settings.

By adhering to these recommended practices, educators can instill a strong foundation for literacy skills, empowering students to become proficient readers and writers.


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